Prosenjit Ghosh obtained his BSc (Geology) (1991) from Hansraj College, Delhi University and MTech in Applied Geology (1994) from University of Roorkee (Uttar Pradesh) and PhD (2000) from Devi Ahiliya Vishwa Vidhyalaya, Indore while working under the supervision of S.K. Bhattacharya at the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad. Subsequently, he was Postdoctoral Fellow (2001-2002) at PRL.
He was WMO-IAEA post doctoral fellow at Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena with Willi Brand and Caltech postdoctoral fellow with John Eiler. He worked as an Assistant Professor at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan during 2006-2007. He joined as an Assistant Professor in the Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science in the year 2007 and became a core faculty at the Centre for Earth Sciences in the year 2008, soon after its creation. He is adjunct faculty in other departments which includes Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Divecha Centre for Climate Change.